Short Online Biology Course

This site was created by Maya Markova, associate professor at the Department of Biology, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria. More about the author at URL

These texts were initially created as teaching resources for the 1st year students of the Medical University of Sofia, but of course all readers are welcome.

The English pages are in construction. Some links below may be broken or may open pages in Bulgarian. These defects will be gradually corrected.

Table of contents

Molecular basis of life

Subject and method of biology
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell

Molecular biology
1. Proteins structure, properties and functions.
2. Methods to study proteins.
3. Organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes.
4. Organization of the genetic material in eukaryotes.
5. Transcription and its regulation in prokaryotes.
6. Transcription and its regulation in eukaryotes.
7. RNA processing.
8. Translation genetic code and participants in the process.
9. Translation mechanism and control.
10. Fate of proteins after translation sorting and folding.
11. Fate of proteins after translation modifications and degradation.
12. DNA replication overview and basic modes.
13. DNA replication mechanism.
14. DNA repair.
15. DNA recombination. General DNA recombination.
16. Site-specific DNA recombination.
17. Mutations. Gene mutations and action.
18. Chromosomal mutations.
19. Gene engineering (recombinant DNA technology): studying DNA structure.
20. Gene engineering (recombinant DNA technology): managing DNA function..

Cell and developmental biology
1. Cell cycle. Mitosis
2. Control of the cell cycle
3. Sexual processes and life cycles

1. Innate immunity.
2. Acquired immunity. Humoral immunity. Structure of immunoglobulins and their epitopes.
3. Humoral immunity functions of antibodies.
4. Measuring the antigen - antibody reaction: immunological methods.
5. Cell-mediated immunity. T cell receptors (TCR) and their epitopes. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
6. Cell-mediated immunity - functions of T killers and T helpers.
7. Genetic basis of antibodies and T cell receptors.
8. Lymphocyte differentiation in central lymphoid organs.
9. Development of the immune response in peripheral lymphoid organs.
10. Regulation of the immune response. Immune tolerance.
11. Transplantation.
12. Evolution of immunity.

1. Parasitism.
2. Phylum Sarcomastigophora.

How knowledge of life evolved

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Published in 2003
Last updated 2014

Copyright © Maya Markova